Kre-Alkalyn/Creatine Monohydrate Overview:
Creatine is an amino acid (broken down protein) derived compound produced in the body that serves as the primary fuel source (ATP) for short duration, high intensity activities such as sprinting and weight lifting. Creatine is stored primarily in muscle tissue, and it is used for rephosphorylating ADP into ATP. This means that when our muscles use up our energy stores, creatine helps to replenish those stores in a fairly rapid manner. Approximately 2 grams of creatine are found in individuals that do not supplement and maintain a diet including animal based proteins. Those who do supplement can increase their body’s internal creatine pool by 10 to 40% depending on diet and total lean muscle mass.
As a whole creatine is arguably the most extensively researched and effective supplement available today. Over 500 studies exist of the ergogenic benefits of creatine supplementation with over 70% of these studies producing significant improvements in performance without any detrimental side effects.
Natural sources of creatine include meat, eggs, fish, and milk but you would have to consume ~20 steaks/day in order to fully saturate creatine stores; while 5 grams a day of creatine monohydrate or other forms of creatine for 20 days will accomplish the same goal.
The ISSN (International Society of Sports Nutrition) position stand on creatine monohydrate (CM) found that short-term CM supplementation has been reported to improve maximal power/strength (5–15%), work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions (5–15%), single-effort sprint performance (1–5%), and work performed during repetitive sprint performance (5–15%). Long-term CM supplementation appears to enhance the overall quality of training, leading to 5 to 15% greater gains in strength and performance.
Creatine Magnapower is simply creatine bonded to a magnesium. This is thought to increase the solubility and absorption of the creatine.
Creates a higher level of absorption and utilization than creatine monohydrate
Greater bioavailability of creatine and magnesium
Ergogenic activity is enhanced when magnesium creatine chelate is consumed
Greater increase in intracellular water, an indicator of greater protein synthesis
Creatine HCL is thought to be more soluble than creatine monohydrate and in theory should absorb better; requiring a lower dose to achieve the same ergogenic benefits as creatine monohydrate.
Creatine Ethyl Ester:
Creatine Ethyl Ester is creatine bound to an ester molecule that exhibits all the same benefits of creatine monohydrate without bloating or GI distress.
Creatine Di Malate:
Creatine Di Malate is a combination of creatine and malic acid that improves creatine uptake in the body and may convey some endurance boosting benefits due to malate component.
MAX ABSORPTION COMPLEX
Trigonella foenum-graecum, commonly known as fenugreek, is a popular herb in Arabic regions and India. It has traditionally been used to enhance libido and masculinity.
Carbohydrates and insulin improve creatine uptake, and fenugreek boosts insulin sensitivity to produce the same effect but without all the calories of carbs!
Fenugreek has been shown to increase testosterone in healthy males, which is thought to be due to a backlog of testosterone conversion into DHT via inhibiting the 5-alpha reductase enzyme.
Fenugreek has also been used to alleviate blood sugar metabolism problems like diabetes.
A human study done by Wilborn et al. (2010) noted that fenugreek supplementation led to increases in testosterone and bio-available testosterone, while also decreasing body fat.
Alpha Lipoic Acid:
Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a mitochondrial fatty acid that is highly involved in energy metabolism. It is synthesized in the body and can be consumed through eating meats and minimally in some fruits/vegetables.
ALA has been shown to keep insulin levels lower and act as a mild appetite suppressant.
ALA has also been shown to be of benefit against various forms of oxidation and inflammation. These effects carry on to benefits that protect one from heart diseases, liver diseases, diabetes, and neurological decline with age.
ALA is also a potent anti-oxidant compound. It works with mitochondria and the body’s natural anti-oxidant defenses.
It is also seen as an anti-aging compound since it can reverse some of the oxidant damage related effects of aging.
Piperine is an extract of the fruit of black pepper, or long pepper.
Piperine significantly enhances the bioavailability of various supplement nutrients through increased absorption.
Potassium is a mineral found in varying amounts in almost all foods.
It is needed for building and keeping strong bones.
It also helps control the amount of calcium in the body and urine.
If potassium levels get too high or too low, the heart and nervous system completely shut down. Many people in the U.S. often fail to obtain optimal amounts of this nutrient, and pay a health cost for it.
Calcium is an electrolyte that is necessary for many functions, especially muscle contraction.
Therefore, the level of calcium in the blood has to be kept in a narrow range at all times.
If the blood calcium level drops, then the bones will release calcium until an optimal level is once again achieved. However, this compromises the strength of the bones.
Importantly, calcium is lost in sweat, so prolonged exercise requires calcium replenishment.
Magnesium is an essential mineral and electrolyte. It is involved in protein synthesis, ATP formation, metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, and bone strength.
Magnesium deficiencies are the second most common deficiency in developed countries. A lack of magnesium will raise blood pressure and reduce insulin sensitivity.
Increases in free and total testosterone have been noted in sedentary and athletic populations when supplementing with magnesium supplementation. It also acts as a muscle relaxer and may improve aerobic performance.
Brilla et al. (1992) discovered 26 untrained subjects who participated in a 7 week strength training program in conjunction with magnesium supplementation were able to increase testosterone relative to baseline.
Creatine as a whole:
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2. Earnest CP, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, Almada AL, Mitchell TL: The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta physiologica Scandinavica 1995, 153:207-209.
3. Kreider RB, Ferreira M, Wilson M, Grindstaff P, Plisk S, Reinardy J, Cantler E, Almada AL: Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition, strength, and sprint performance. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 1998, 30:73-82.
4. Lopez, R. M., Casa, D. J., McDermott, B. P., Ganio, M. S., Armstrong, L. E., & Maresh, C. M. (2009). Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? A systematic review with meta-analyses. Journal of athletic training, 44(2), 215-223.
5. Candow, D. G., Chilibeck, P. D., Burke, D. G., Mueller, K. D., & Lewis, J. D. (2011). Effect of different frequencies of creatine supplementation on muscle size and strength in young adults. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(7), 1831-1838.
6. McConell, G. K., Shinewell, J., Stephens, T. J., Stathis, C. G., Canny, B. J., & Snow, R. J. (2005). Creatine supplementation reduces muscle inosine monophosphate during endurance exercise in humans. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 37(12), 2054.
7. Rae, C., Digney, A. L., McEwan, S. R., & Bates, T. C. (2003). Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double–blind, placebo–controlled, cross–over trial. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 270(1529), 2147-2150.
1. Wheelwright, D. C., & Ashmead, S. D. (2000). U.S. Patent No. 6,114,379. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
2. Brilla, L. R., Giroux, M. S., Taylor, A., & Knutzen, K. M. (2003). Magnesium-creatine supplementation effects on body water. Metabolism, 52(9), 1136-1140.
3. Baldwin, D., Robinson, P. K., Zierler, K. L., & Lilienthal Jr, J. L. (1952). Interrelations of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and creatine in skeletal muscle of man. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 31(9), 850.
4. Morrison, J. F., O’Sullivan, W. J., & Ogston, A. G. (1961). Kinetic studies of the activation of creatine phosphoryltransferase by magnesium. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 52(1), 82-96.
1. 1. Miller, D. W., Vennerstrom, J. L., & Faulkner, M. C. (2009). U.S. Patent No. 7,608,641. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
2. Miller, D. W. (2009). Oral Bioavailability of Creatine Supplements: Is There Room for Improvement?. In Annual Meeting of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.
3. Dash, A. K., Miller, D. W., Huai‐Yan, H., Carnazzo, J., & Stout, J. R. (2001). Evaluation of creatine transport using Caco‐2 monolayers as an in vitro model for intestinal absorption. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 90(10), 1593-1598.
Creatine Ethyl Ester:
1. Giese, M. W., & Lecher, C. S. (2009). Non-enzymatic cyclization of creatine ethyl ester to creatinine. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 388(2), 252-255.
2. Katseres, N. S., Reading, D. W., Shayya, L., DiCesare, J. C., & Purser, G. H. (2009). Non-enzymatic hydrolysis of creatine ethyl ester. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 386(2), 363-367.
3. Giese, M. W., & Lecher, C. S. (2009). Qualitative in vitro NMR analysis of creatine ethyl ester pronutrient in human plasma. International journal of sports medicine, 30(10), 766-770.
1. Chevassus, H., Molinier, N., Costa, F., Galtier, F., Renard, E., & Petit, P. (2009). A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat consumption in healthy volunteers. European journal of clinical pharmacology, 65(12), 1175-1178.
2. Wilborn, C., Taylor, L., Poole, C., Foster, C., Willoughby, D., & Kreider, R. (2010). Effects of a Purported Aromatase and 5 α-Reductase Inhibitor on Hormone Profiles in College-Age Men. International journal of sport nutrition,20(6), 457.
3. Steels, E., Rao, A., & Vitetta, L. (2011). Physiological Aspects of Male Libido Enhanced by Standardized Trigonella foenum‐graecum Extract and Mineral Formulation. Phytotherapy Research, 25(9), 1294-1300.
4. Kochhar, A., & Nagi, M. (2005). Effect of supplementation of traditional medicinal plants on blood glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetics: a pilot study. Journal of medicinal food, 8(4), 545-549.
5. Gupta, A., Gupta, R., & Lal, B. (2001). Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 49, 1057-1061.
Alpha Lipoic Acid:
1. McNeilly, A. M., Davison, G. W., Murphy, M. H., Nadeem, N., Trinick, T., Duly, E., … & McEneny, J. (2011). Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance. Lipids in health and disease, 10(1), 1.
2. Zembron-Lacny, A., Slowinska-Lisowska, M., Szygula, Z., Witkowski, K., Stefaniak, T., & Dziubek, W. (2009). Assessment of the antioxidant effectiveness of alpha-lipoic acid in healthy men exposed to muscle-damaging exercise. J Physiol Pharmacol, 60(2), 139-43.
3. Sola, S., Mir, M. Q., Cheema, F. A., Khan-Merchant, N., Menon, R. G., Parthasarathy, S., & Khan, B. V. (2005). Irbesartan and lipoic acid improve endothelial function and reduce markers of inflammation in the metabolic syndrome results of the irbesartan and lipoic acid in endothelial dysfunction (island) study. Circulation, 111(3), 343-348.
4. Ranieri, M., Sciuscio, M., Cortese, A. M., Santamato, A., Di Teo, L., Ianieri, G., … & Megna, M. (2009). The Use and Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA), Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA) and Rehabilitation in the Treatment of Back Pain: Effect on Health-Related Quality of Life. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, 22(3 suppl), 45-50.
1. Johnson, J. J., Nihal, M., Siddiqui, I. A., Scarlett, C. O., Bailey, H. H., Mukhtar, H., & Ahmad, N. (2011). Enhancing the bioavailability of resveratrol by combining it with piperine. Molecular nutrition & food research, 55(8), 1169-1176.
2. Badmaev, V., & Majeed, M. (1996). Comparison of nutrient bioavailability when ingested alone and in combination with Bioperine. Research Report, Sabinsa Corporation.
1. Kanbay, M., Bayram, Y., Solak, Y., & Sanders, P. W. (2013). Dietary potassium: A key mediator of the cardiovascular response to dietary sodium chloride. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, 7(5), 395-400.
2. Zhou, X., Zhang, Z., Shin, M. K., Horwitz, S. B., Levorse, J. M., Zhu, L., … & Pan, Y. (2013). Heterozygous disruption of renal outer medullary potassium channel in rats is associated with reduced blood pressure. Hypertension, 62(2), 288-294.
1. Barry et al. 2011; Acute Calcium Ingestion Attenuates Exercise-induced Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis
2. Paschoal et al. 2004; Nutritional status of Brazilian elite swimmers.
3. Venderley et al. 2006; Vegetarian diets : nutritional considerations for athletes.
4. Maughan et al. 2007; Nutrition and hydration concerns of the female football player.
5. Clarkson et al. 1995; Exercise and mineral status of athletes: calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron.
6. Cinar et al. 2008; Testosterone levels in athletes at rest and exhaustion: effects of calcium supplementation.
1. Cinar, V., Polat, Y., Baltaci, A. K., & Mogulkoc, R. (2011). Effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustion. Biological trace element research, 140(1), 18-23.
2. van der Plas, A. A., Schilder, J. C., Marinus, J., & van Hilten, J. J. (2013). An explanatory study evaluating the muscle relaxant effects of intramuscular magnesium sulphate for dystonia in complex regional pain syndrome. The Journal of Pain, 14(11), 1341-1348.
3. Hatzistavri, L. S., Sarafidis, P. A., Georgianos, P. I., Tziolas, I. M., Aroditis, C. P., Zebekakis, P. E., … & Lasaridis, A. N. (2009). Oral magnesium supplementation reduces ambulatory blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. American journal of hypertension, 22(10), 1070-1075.
4. Golf, S. W., Bender, S., & Grüttner, J. (1998). On the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stress. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy,12(2), 197-202.
5. Carpenter, T. O., DeLucia, M. C., Zhang, J. H., Bejnerowicz, G., Tartamella, L., Dziura, J., … & Cohen, D. (2006). A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girls. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 91(12), 4866-4872.
6. Held, K., Antonijevic, I. A., Künzel, H., Uhr, M., Wetter, T. C., Golly, I. C., … & Murck, H. (2002). Oral Mg (2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry,35(4), 135-143.
7. Brilla, L. R., & Haley, T. F. (1992). Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans. Journal of the American College of Nutrition,11(3), 326-329.